This Gordon Research Conference reflects the growing understanding that dendrites might play a central role in neuronal computation. It has long been understood that up to thousands of synaptic inputs can arrive at different locations along a neuron's dendrites and that the subsequent integrative process ultimately determines that neuron's output. Recent advances in molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques have led to a new picture of dendrites, and a deeper understanding of their computational role. In many instances, the dendrites themselves can be the engines of active processes that contribute to computation at the cellular and network levels. Many complex mechanisms shape dendritic structure, function, and connectivity. Further, dendrites can undergo plastic changes in structure and function during development and learning, but also during neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Computational and theoretical approaches have further refined our views of dendrites and their unique role in brain function. This Gordon Research Conference will bring together researchers whose latest findings help clarify how the molecular and electrophysiological properties of dendrites enable them to perform complex computations important for sensory-motor processing and higher cognitive function. The conference will be of interest to researchers and students in neuroscience, as well as to anyone interested in normal and abnormal brain function.