The past 25 years of research demonstrates that redox sensing, signaling, adaptation and associated disorders are inextricably linked to the site-specific covalent modification of the cysteinyl proteome also known as the cysteinome. Early genetic and biochemical studies identified sentinel cysteinyl-based sensors that provide an interface for organisms to sense and adapt to its environment, including resources such as food and oxygen, and threats such as infection and toxicants. New methods are available to define thiol reactivity, types of cysteinyl modifications, and quantify stoichiometry to elucidate the myriad mechanistic details that underlie sulfur-based redox biology. These capabilities and advanced computational models, together with omics platforms offer unprecedented possibilities to realize the therapeutic potential available through targeting redox networks. This GRC/GRS will bring together scientists whose approaches have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological basis of thiol-based redox regulation and signaling. The focused presentations of unpublished data and the abundant opportunities for informal discussion make this conference a unique opportunity to generate new ideas and initiate new collaborations.